What is MITRE ATT&CK Framework ?

The MITRE ATT&CK Framework emerges as a critical tool for cybersecurity and IT professionals, offering a comprehensive matrix that categorizes and describes specific tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) used by threat actors in their cyber operations.

This framework was created to provide a granular understanding of adversary behaviors and enable organizations to better understand the adversary’s actions and prepare more effective defenses against them.

The significance of the MITRE ATT&CK Framework in cybersecurity cannot be overstated. For IT professionals, it serves as a valuable reference that aids in the identification, prevention, and mitigation of cyber threats.

By offering a detailed understanding of how adversaries operate, the framework empowers defenders to adopt a more proactive stance in their cybersecurity measures. This, in turn, enhances their ability to protect critical infrastructure and sensitive data against increasingly sophisticated attacks.

The MITRE ATT&CK Matrix: Understanding the Framework’s Structure

At the core of the MITRE ATT&CK Framework is its detailed matrix of tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs), a structured categorization that provides a granular understanding of adversary behaviors. This section will elucidate the framework’s structure, offering insights into how its components interlink to offer a comprehensive picture of cyber threats.


Tactics represent the “why” of an adversary’s actions—their objectives during an attack. Each tactic within the framework corresponds to a specific goal that the adversary aims to achieve, such as gaining initial access, executing commands, or exfiltrating data. Understanding these tactics allows cybersecurity professionals to anticipate what an attacker might do next, informing strategic defensive measures.

The MITRE ATT&CK Framework organizes these objectives into a series of categories, each representing a stage in the attack lifecycle. From initial access and execution to privilege escalation and exfiltration, tactics offer a lens through which to view the adversary’s intentions. Recognizing these objectives is pivotal for defenders, as it guides the development of targeted defensive strategies to thwart the attackers’ plans.

  1. Reconnaissance: The collection of information used to plan future attacks. This includes gathering data on the target’s personnel, infrastructure, and digital presence to identify vulnerabilities and plan entry points.
  2. Resource Development: The creation and management of resources used in attacks, such as acquiring domain names, developing malware, and establishing infrastructure for operations.
  3. Initial Access: The methods attackers use to gain an entry point into a network. Techniques under this tactic include phishing, exploiting public-facing applications, and using valid accounts.
  4. Execution: The execution of code to carry out actions on the target system, such as running malicious scripts or exploiting vulnerabilities to execute arbitrary code.
  5. Persistence: The techniques used by attackers to maintain their foothold within a network across reboots, changed credentials, and other interruptions that could cut off their access.
  6. Privilege Escalation: Methods used to gain higher-level permissions on a system or network. Common techniques include exploiting system vulnerabilities and manipulating access tokens.
  7. Defense Evasion: Techniques designed to avoid detection by security measures, such as obfuscating malicious code, disabling security software, and using encryption to hide command and control traffic.
  8. Credential Access: The strategies used to steal account names and passwords, including credential dumping, input capture, and exploiting system or service vulnerabilities.
  9. Discovery: The actions taken to gain knowledge about the system and internal network. Attackers may catalog software installations, understand security policies, and enumerate system and network resources.
  10. Lateral Movement: Techniques that enable an attacker to move through a network, gaining access to additional systems to control remote systems, often using stolen credentials.
  11. Collection: The gathering of data of interest to the attacker’s objectives. This may involve capturing screenshots, keylogging, or collecting data stored in the cloud.
  12. Command and Control (C2): The mechanisms used to maintain communication with the compromised system, allowing the attacker to control the system remotely, exfiltrate data, and deploy additional tools.
  13. Exfiltration: The methods used to steal data from the target network. Techniques can include transferring data over the command and control channel, using a web service, or physical means.
  14. Impact: The tactics aimed at disrupting, destroying, or manipulating information and systems to affect the target’s operations. This includes data destruction, defacement, and denial of service attacks.


Techniques describe “how” the adversaries achieve their objectives. For each tactic, the framework lists various techniques that adversaries might employ. For instance, under the tactic of “Initial Access,” techniques could include spear-phishing emails or exploiting public-facing applications. By cataloging these techniques, the framework offers a playbook of potential attack methods, enabling defenders to tailor their defenses to the most likely threats.

For each tactic, there are multiple techniques that an adversary might employ, reflecting the diverse array of tools and methods at their disposal. Understanding these techniques is critical for cybersecurity professionals, as it enables them to identify potential attack vectors and implement appropriate safeguards.

The MITRE ATT&CK Framework catalogs a vast array of techniques that adversaries use to achieve their objectives throughout the attack lifecycle. While the relevance of specific techniques can vary depending on the context, environment, and targets, there are several that are frequently observed across a wide range of incidents.

Below, we outline some of the most common techniques detailed in the framework, emphasizing their widespread application and the critical need for defenses against them.

  • Phishing (T1566): Utilizing fraudulent communications, often email, to deceive users into providing sensitive information or executing malicious payloads.
  • Drive-by Compromise (T1189): Exploiting vulnerabilities in web browsers to execute code simply by visiting a compromised website.
  • Command and Scripting Interpreter (T1059): Employing scripts or commands to execute actions. PowerShell (T1059.001) is particularly prevalent due to its powerful capabilities and deep integration with Windows environments.
  • User Execution (T1204): Tricking users into running malicious code, for example, by opening a malicious attachment or link.
  • Registry Run Keys / Startup Folder (T1547.001): Adding programs to registry keys or startup folders to execute malware automatically upon system startup.
  • Account Manipulation (T1098): Modifying user accounts to maintain access, such as adding credentials to a domain account.
  • Exploitation for Privilege Escalation (T1068): Taking advantage of software vulnerabilities to gain higher-level privileges.
  • Valid Accounts (T1078): Using legitimate credentials to gain access, often leading to elevated privileges if the credentials belong to a user with more access.
  • Obfuscated Files or Information (T1027): Concealing malicious code within files to evade detection.
  • Disabling Security Tools (T1562): Actions taken to disable security software or services that could detect or prevent malicious activity.
  • Credential Dumping (T1003): Extracting credentials from systems, often through tools like Mimikatz.
  • Input Capture (T1056): Recording user input, including keylogging, to capture credentials and other sensitive information.
  • System Information Discovery (T1082): Gathering information about the system to inform further actions, such as software versions and configurations.
  • Account Discovery (T1087): Identifying accounts, often to understand privileges and roles within the environment.
  • Remote Services (T1021): Using remote services such as Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP), Secure Shell (SSH), or others to move across systems.
  • Pass the Ticket (T1097): Using stolen Kerberos tickets to authenticate as other users without the need for their plaintext password.
  • Commonly Used Port (T1043): Utilizing ports that are typically open for internet traffic to communicate with controlled systems, helping to blend in with legitimate traffic.
  • Standard Application Layer Protocol (T1071): Using protocols such as HTTP, HTTPS, or DNS to facilitate command and control communications, making detection more challenging.
  • Data Encrypted for Impact (T1486): Encrypting data to prevent its use and potentially leveraging it for ransom demands.
  • Exfiltration Over Command and Control Channel (T1041): Sending stolen data over the same channel used for command and control to avoid additional network footprints.

These techniques represent just a sample of the extensive repertoire adversaries have at their disposal. Effective cybersecurity practices require ongoing education and adaptation to address these and emerging techniques. By understanding and preparing for these common techniques, organizations can enhance their defensive posture and reduce the risk of successful cyber attacks.


Procedures are the specific implementations of techniques by actual threat actors. They represent the real-world application of techniques, providing examples of how a specific adversary group might leverage a technique to achieve their objectives. This level of detail adds depth to the framework, illustrating the practical use of techniques in various contexts.

They represent the actual execution of techniques in real-world scenarios, offering granular examples of how adversaries apply these methods to achieve their goals. By studying procedures, organizations can gain insights into the modus operandi of particular threat actors, enabling them to tailor their defenses against likely threats.

The framework is further organized into matrices for different platforms, acknowledging the distinct nature of cyber threats across environments like Windows, macOS, Cloud, and others. This differentiation ensures that the framework’s insights are relevant and actionable across a broad spectrum of IT infrastructures.

Application in Real-World Scenarios

The practical application of the MITRE ATT&CK Framework in real-world scenarios underscores its value to cybersecurity and IT professionals. By providing a detailed understanding of adversary behaviors, the framework facilitates a proactive approach to security, enhancing an organization’s capacity to anticipate, detect, and respond to cyber threats.

Enhancing Threat Intelligence

  • Comprehensive Adversary Profiles: By aggregating and analyzing techniques associated with specific threat actors, the framework helps organizations develop detailed adversary profiles, offering insights into potential future attacks.
  • Trend Analysis: The framework aids in identifying emerging trends in cyber threats, enabling security teams to adjust their defenses in anticipation of evolving tactics and techniques.

Strengthening Security Operations

  • Security Posture Assessment: Organizations use the MITRE ATT&CK Framework to assess their security posture, identifying potential vulnerabilities in their defenses and prioritizing remediation efforts based on the techniques most relevant to their threat landscape.
  • Threat Hunting: Security professionals leverage the framework to guide their threat hunting activities, using known tactics and techniques as indicators of compromise to uncover latent threats within their environments.

Informing Incident Response

  • Accelerating Detection and Response: Incident response teams apply the framework to rapidly identify the tactics and techniques employed in an attack, facilitating a quicker and more targeted response to breaches.
  • Post-Incident Analysis: Following an incident, the framework is used to dissect the attack chain, providing valuable lessons that can be used to fortify defenses against future attacks.

History of the MITRE ATTACK Framework

The genesis of the MITRE ATT&CK Framework traces back to 2013, marking the culmination of efforts by MITRE, a not-for-profit organization renowned for its dedication to solving critical public challenges through research and innovation. Originating as a project within MITRE to document the behavior of advanced persistent threats (APTs), the framework has since transcended its initial scope, evolving into a globally recognized encyclopedia of adversary tactics and techniques.

The Early Days

The inception of ATT&CK was driven by the need for a standardized language and methodology to describe and categorize the behavior of cyber adversaries. Prior to ATT&CK, the cybersecurity community lacked a unified framework for sharing information about how threats operated, making it challenging to build collective defenses against common adversaries. Recognizing this gap, MITRE set out to create a tool that would not only facilitate better understanding of threat behaviors but also foster collaboration within the cybersecurity community.

Expansion and Evolution

What started as a modest collection of techniques observed in APT campaigns rapidly expanded as contributions from cybersecurity professionals around the world began to enrich the framework. This collaborative effort led to the diversification of the framework, extending its applicability beyond APTs to encompass a wide range of cyber threats across various environments, including cloud, mobile, and network-based systems.

Key Milestones

  • 2013: Launch of the ATT&CK Framework, initially focusing on Windows-based threats.
  • 2015: Introduction of matrices for other platforms, such as macOS and Linux, reflecting the framework’s growing inclusivity.
  • 2017: Expansion to cover mobile threats, highlighting the evolving landscape of cybersecurity concerns.
  • 2018: Release of the ATT&CK for Enterprise matrix, offering insights into adversary tactics and techniques across all major platforms.
  • 2020 and Beyond: Continuous updates and the introduction of sub-techniques to provide even more granular insights into adversary behaviors.

The development of ATT&CK has been marked by an ongoing commitment to openness and community engagement. By soliciting feedback and contributions from cybersecurity practitioners worldwide, MITRE has ensured that the framework remains relevant, up-to-date, and reflective of the latest adversarial tactics.

Impact on Cybersecurity

The MITRE ATT&CK Framework has fundamentally transformed how organizations approach cybersecurity. Its comprehensive detailing of adversary behaviors has standardized the terminology used in cyber threat analysis, enabling more effective communication and collaboration across the industry. Furthermore, the framework has become an indispensable tool for security operations, threat intelligence, and defensive strategies, guiding organizations in developing more resilient and proactive cybersecurity postures.

The history of the MITRE ATT&CK Framework is a testament to the power of collective knowledge and the importance of a unified approach to cybersecurity. Its evolution from a focused effort to document APT behaviors to a comprehensive guide on global cyber threats exemplifies the dynamic nature of the cyber landscape and the necessity for continuous adaptation and collaboration.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • What is MFA and how does it work?

    Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) is a security technology that validates users’ identities. It achieves this by asking users to provide additional evidence of their identity on top of their credentials, usually in the form of a numerical code sent via SMS, email, or an authenticator app.